Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): This is the primary fuel used by cells to generate the biochemical reactions essential for life.
Adrenals: Located on the top of the kidneys, these glands that are responsible for the production of stress-related hormones such as cortisol, DHEA, and adrenaline.
Adrenocortiotrophic Hormone (ACTH): The hormone released from the pituitary gland. It interacts with receptors on the adrenal gland to begin the process of cortisol and DHEA production. ACTH uses the second messenger cyclic AMP to signal target cells in the adrenal gland.
Advanced Glycosylation Endproduct (AGE): The polymerized end-products of protein cross-linked with glucose. AGEs tend to adhere to capillaries and arteries. increasing the risk of heart disease, blindness, and kidney failure. AGEs are best estimated by the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in the bloodstream.
Aerobic Capacity: The body's ability to process oxygen. It is a combination of lung capacity, the size of the capillaries, the pumping action of the heart, and transfer of oxygen from red blood cells to target tissues.
Aerobic Exercise: Exercise with a low enough intensity to facilitate adequate oxygen transfer to the muscle cells so that no buildup of lactic acid is observed. This type of exercise is useful for reducing insulin levels and lowering blood glucose.
Anaerobic Exercise: Exercise at an intensity that exceeds the ability to supply oxygen to the muscle cells leading to the buildup of lactic acid. Anaerobic exercise stimulates the synthesis of both growth hormone and testosterone.
Anti-Aging Zone Lifestyle Pyramid: The combination of the Zone Diet, moderate exercise, and meditation that interact to reduce the four pillars of aging (excess insulin, excess blood glucose, excess free radicals, and excess cortisol). Of the three components of the Anti-Aging Zone Lifestyle Pyramid, the Zone Diet is by far the most important.
Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to water-soluble hormones, such as sex hormones, cortisol, and thyroid; or certain water-soluble proteins, such as insulin-like growth factor to maintain stable circulating levels of the hormone in the bloodstream.
Cortisol: The hormone released from the adrenal glands in response to stress or low blood glucose. Its primary mode of action in times of stress is to shut down eicosanoid synthesis. Its synthesis in the adrenal gland requires the second messenger, cyclic AMP.
DHA: One of two essential fatty acids found in OmegaRx fish oil. More than 60 percent of the weight of the brain is fat, and most of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in the body are concentrated in the brain. Virtually all of this long chain omega-3 fat is in the form of DHA, which is critical for certain cell membranes such as the synapse (to transfer information), the retina (to receive visual inputs), and the mitochondria (to make ATP). The key brain cells can't perform at peak levels wtihout adequate DHA in their membranes.
Diabetes: A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas type 2 diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin.
Eicosanoid: A hormone derived from a polyunsaturated fat. Eicosanoids are made by every cell in the body. As autocrine hormones, they are constantly produced by the cell to sample the external environment. "Good" eicosanoids generate AMP.
Endothelial Cells: The cells that line the vascular system. They act as a barrier between the bloodstream and target cells that hormones must pass through in order to reach their receptors and exert their biological action.
EPA: Eicosapentaenoic acid is a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid. OmegaRx fish oil contains 40 percent EPA. EPA enhances the production of "good" eicosanoids and inhibits the production of Arachidonic Acid (AA). The higher the level of EPA in the diet, the more your cells will be induced to produce more good "eicosanoids"; the high levels of EPA also hinder the production of "bad" eicosanoids. EPA promotes good physical well-being, including increased circulation, and promotes a healthy immune system. EPA is also a powerful anti-inflammatory.
Essential Fatty Acids: These are the fats the body cannot make and, therefore, must be part of the diet. Essential fatty acids are also the building blocks of eicosanoids. There are two groups (omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids), and each gives rise to a different group of eicosanoids.
Estrogens: A group of three steroid hormones that convey female characteristics and control fertilization. The production of estrogen is stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which uses cyclic AMP as its second messenger.
Gland: A discrete organ responsible for the secretion of hormones. There are nine separate glands in the body. Three are in the brain (hypothalamus, pineal, and pituitary), three are in the throat area (thyroid, thymus, and parathyroid), two are in the midsection (pancreas and adrenals), and one is in the gonad area (testes for males and ovaries for females).
Glucagon: The hormone from the pancreas that causes the release of stored carbohydrate in the liver to restore blood glucose levels. Glucagon uses the second messenger cyclic AMP to exert its biological action.
Glucose: The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.
Glycemic Index: A measure of the rate at which a carbohydrate will enter the bloodstream as glucose. Some simple sugars, such as table sugar, will enter the bloodstream slower than many complex carbohydrates, such as bread, rice, and potatoes. The faster a carbohydrate enters the bloodstream, the higher its glycemic index. The higher the glycemic index of a carbohydrate, the greater the increase in insulin levels. Fruits and vegetables tend to have a low glycemic index, whereas breads, pasta, grains, and starches tend to have a high glycemic index.
Glycosylated Hemoglobin: A measure of the long-term control of blood glucose determined by the amount of carbohydrate-modified hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The higher the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin, the worse the control of blood glucose levels.
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL): The "good" cholesterol that helps remove cholesterol from cells. If insulin levels go up, then HDL levels go down. The lower your HDL level, the more likely you are to suffer cardiovascular complications.
Hormones: Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.
Hormone Releasing Factors: Hormones released from the hypothalamus that directly affect the pituitary and initiate the release of other hormones into the bloodstream. Many hormone releasing factors use cyclic AMP as their secondary messengers.
Hypothalamus: The portion of the brain's limbic system that integrates incoming information, and either increases or decreases the release of certain hormones that instruct the pituitary gland to release hormones.
Insulin Resistance: A condition in which the cells no longer respond adequately to insulin. As a result, the body secretes more insulin into the bloodstream in an effort to reduce blood glucose levels.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH): The hormone released from the pituitary gland, it stimulates the production of testosterone in males and the production of progesterone in females. This hormone uses cyclic AMP as its second messenger.
MAO Inhibitors: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors are a class of drugs used for treating depression and also have been found useful in treatment of migraine. Persons taking MAO inhibitors may not eat certain foods containing tyramine because of the danger of increase in blood pressure and, therefore, must be closely monitored during treatment.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids: A special type of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids found primarily in cold-water fish and purified fish oils. This type of fat is exceptionally beneficial to your cardiovascular system because of its effect on promoting the formation of "good" eicosanoids.
Percentage Body Fat: This describes the percentage of your total weight that is composed of fat. The higher your percentage of body fat, the greater the likelihood of chronic disease, such as heart disease, cancer, or diabetes.
Progesterone: A hormone produced in response to luteinizing hormone (LH) released from the pituitary gland. It is required to flush out the uterus if an egg is not fertilized. It is also useful for stimulating the growth of new bone mass.
Second Messenger: Molecules that are synthesized in response to hormones binding to their receptors. Second messengers initiate the biological action of the hormone.
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): The hormone released from the pituitary that causes the thyroid gland to produce T4 hormone. TSH uses the second messenger cyclic AMP to initiate the synthesis of T4.
Triglycerides (TG): The form of fat found in various lipoproteins in the bloodstream. High levels of triglycerides are usually indicative of high levels of insulin. The ratio of TG/HDL is a powerful indicator of insulin levels and is strongly predictive of future cardiovascular events.
Type 2 Diabetes: A diabetic condition characterized by the overproduction of insulin (hyperinsulinemia), increased AGE production, and decreased longevity.
Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN): The part of the hypothalamus sensitive to excess glucose.